Saturday, June 10, 2017

Continuing to Contemplate Galilean Moon Motion

I decided to see if there are any explanations for what the higher-order derivatives (3rd, 4th, 5th) of position actually feels like, and I didn't get much of an answer.  However, they all have names.  The best source of info on this subject that I was able to find is this article:

What is Derivatives Of Displacement?

So yes, the 3rd derivative is called 'Jerk', which I call 'Bump' -- it's a change in acceleration.  The 4th derivative is 'Jounce' (the change in the 'Jerk') and 5th derivative is called 'Crackle' (the change in the 'Jounce'), which to me don't relay any kind of physical sensation.

In the case of the motions of Jupiter's Galilean moons, I can now look at the past seven days of motion:











Wednesday, June 7, 2017

Galilean Moon Motion 08 June 2017

Looking at the motions of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter.  The following plots are for 08 June 2017.

In all of these plots, I'm showing the 0th (position), 1st (velocity), 2nd (acceleration), 3rd, 4th, and 5th derivatives of position as a function of time.  So the 0th derivative is in km, 1st is km/minute, 2nd is km/min^2, 3rd is km/min^3, 4th is km/min^4, and 5th is km/min^5.  What do the higher-order derivatives feel like?  Not sure, but the 3rd order probably feels like a bump (a change in acceleration).


Io motion around Jupiter:



Europa motion around Jupiter:



Ganymede motion around Jupiter:



Callisto motion around Jupiter:



Io motion relative to Europa:



Io motion relative to Ganymede:


Here's how the 4th derivative sounds:


Io motion relative to Callisto:



Europa motion relative to Ganymede:



Europa motion relative to Callisto:



Ganymede motion relative to Callisto:


All of this will be converted to audio so I can experience how it sounds.

Saturday, February 25, 2017

Chaos Plots

These images are based on the equation:

N+1 = (lam) * N * (1-N)

where 'N' is the current population level (scaled between zero and one) and 'N+1' is the next population level.  'lam' goes from zero to about five until things get a bit crazy.

This little work is based on the video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETrYE4MdoLQ

In the plots below, the x-axis is the 'lam' value, and the y-axis is the 'N' value.


Friday, January 8, 2016

CMS Audio and Visual

In today's Weekly Space Hangout, the guest was Elizabeth S. Sexton-Kennedy who works at Fermilab with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS).  I enjoyed the interview very much and it was a breath of fresh air to be focusing on non-astronomical topic that indeed has many astronomers very interested.  At one point in the interview, she very briefly but proudly mentioned that CMS data is available to the public.  I don't necessarily consider myself "The Public" but what I heard was that CMS data was publicly available.

So I started my hunt.  The goal was to see if I could take some CMS data and turn it into audio and visual interpretations.

It was pretty easy to find the data.  I had quite a choise so I just blindly chose the first one: "Dimuon events with invariant mass range 2-5 GeV for public education and outreach" which happened to be a file containing two thousand data points (maybe they're individual events????) that I haven't a clue about.  At the top of the .csv file is a very short header apparently describing the values therein.  I noticed that columns 4, 5, and 6 were labeled "px1", "py1", and "pz1".  So I'm sort of taking that as some sort of three-dimensional coordinate system.

I can work with that.

So what I did was a calculated the "distance" between each "event" coordinate and the origin (0,0,0 in 3D space), giving me a radial distance between the "event" and the origin.  I then sorted them by distance and translated those values into audio frequencies and came up with the following (in all of these cases, a lower frequency means a smaller distance; also note that I've kept the amplitude of each frequency the same):

This is the sound of the five hundred "events" that were nearest the origin.

CMS Dimuon 0 to 500

Here is the sound of the five hundred "events" starting at the 500th furthest one from the origin:

CMS Dimuon 500 to 1000

here is the sound of the five hundred "events" starting at the 1000th furthest one from the origin:

CMS Dimuon 1000 to 1500

here is the sound of the five hundred "events" starting at the 1500th furthest one from the origin:

CMS Dimuon 1500 to 2000

And here, at last, is all of them combined into one sound (2000 notes playing at the same time!):

CMS Dimuon All Events

Now of course I had to make some pretty pictures using the same data.  All I've done here is plot the values and in some cases connect the dots.  Hope you like 'em.  I think they're beautiful!

Looks like a white blood cell, a stange snowflake, or a spiney cotton ball
Looks like a globular cluster

Thursday, December 31, 2015

Galilean Moon Mutual Shadows and Mutual Transits

Dave Dickenson recently published his annual Top 101 Astronomical Events for 2016 and I was surprised to see that (at least according to this article) the shadows of pairs of moons (he calls them 'double shadows') was visible from Earth twenty-seven times!  Wow so that takes up 26.73% of all the events for this year!

"Dave!", I thought, "why did you mention these events if for no other reason than filler so you could get up to your famous 101 events?"  You were actually very very lucky to have just the right number of double shadow events to fill what would otherwise be a big gap in your list.

Mutual events involving two or more moons plus Jupiter itself is pretty exciting, but aren't there any other things -- perhaps more interesting -- going on there?  What about actual moon transits?  Too many or too few to fit into your pre-determined number of top events for 2016?

I, for one, don't think that the moon transits should be left out, especially if you're already looking for moon shadow transits anyhow.  But listing shadows and transits would have made the list way too unbalanced, so maybe this is why Dave chose just the shadow events -- because they fit.

So I decided to take a look and see what else is happening at Jupiter this year from Earth's POV.  Plus, like any good scientist, I wanted to check Dave's work.  I'm happy to announce that, for the most part, our results agrees.

So I found Galilean moon event predictions at the IMCCE and wrote a program to parse the data and tell me when each moon is transiting and when it's shadow is transiting.

I then produced these plots.  The first shows the shadow events and the 2nd shows the transit events.

Shadow Events

Transit Events

The y-axis is an arbitrary value that allows me to separate events.  The x-axis is the day number for this year (2016).  I've labeled the events.

According to this data, there are 25 'double shadow' events and 30 'double transit' events.  The two events that Dave has on his list that I don't have on mine are:

12 April double shadow Io - Europa
08 November double shadow Ganymede - Europa

Not quite sure where Dave got his data, but this is clearly a case of "your results are only as good as your data".

Here are the events I found (EV=event, MM=month, DD=day, HH=hour, MM=minute):

Shadows (under the EV column: I = Io, E = Europa, G = Ganymede, C = Callisto):

    EV MM DD HH MM   MM DD HH MM Comment
----------------------------------------------
 1. IE  2 22 20 42 -  2 22 20 46
 2. IE  2 26  9 38 -  2 26 10  4
 3. IE  2 29 22 35 -  2 29 23 22
 4. IE  3  4 11 32 -  3  4 12 40
 5. IE  3  8  0 29 -  3  8  1 59
 6. IG  3  9 18 57 -  3  9 19 11
 7. IE  3 11 13 26 -  3 11 15 17
 8. IE  3 15  2 23 -  3 15  4 35
 9. IG  3 16 20 51 -  3 16 23  6 Io Passes Gan
10. IE  3 18 15 19 -  3 18 17 35 Io Passes Eur
11. IE  3 22  4 24 -  3 22  6 32
12. IG  3 23 23 48 -  3 24  1  0
13. IE  3 25 17 42 -  3 25 19 29
14. IE  3 29  7  1 -  3 29  8 26
15. IE  4  1 20 19 -  4  1 21 23
16. IC  4  3 15 12 -  4  3 15 51
17. IE  4  5  9 38 -  4  5 10 20
18. IE  4  8 22 56 -  4  8 23 17
19. IC  5  7  4 40 -  5  7  5 43
20. IG  8  7  5 32 -  8  7  6 34
21. IG  8 14  7 33 -  8 14  9 41
22. IG  8 21 11 31 -  8 21 11 36
23. EG 10 17 20 59 - 10 17 22 14
24. EG 10 24 23 33 - 10 25  2  8 Eur Passes Gan
25. EG 11  1  3 20 - 11  1  4 41


Transits:

    EV MM DD HH MM   MM DD HH MM Comment
----------------------------------------------
 1. IE  2 19  8 11 -  2 19  8 18
 2. IE  2 22 21  3 -  2 22 21 27
 3. IE  2 26  9 54 -  2 26 10 34
 4. IE  2 29 22 46 -  2 29 23 43
 5. IE  3  4 11 38 -  3  4 12 50
 6. IE  3  8  0 30 -  3  8  1 58
 7. IG  3  9 18 55 -  3  9 18 59
 8. IE  3 11 13 21 -  3 11 15  6
 9. IE  3 15  2 13 -  3 15  4 14
10. IG  3 16 20 39 -  3 16 22 15
11. IE  3 18 15  5 -  3 18 17 20 Io Passes Eur
12. IE  3 22  3 57 -  3 22  6 12 Io Passes Eur
13. IG  3 23 22 23 -  3 24  0 38 Io Passes Gan
14. IE  3 25 16 52 -  3 25 19  4
15. IE  3 29  6  1 -  3 29  7 56
16. IG  3 31  1 40 -  3 31  2 22
17. IE  4  1 19 10 -  4  1 20 49
18. IE  4  5  8 19 -  4  5  9 41
19. IE  4  8 21 29 -  4  8 22 34
20. IE  4 12 10 40 -  4 12 11 28
21. IE  4 15 23 50 -  4 16  0 21
22. IE  4 19 13  2 -  4 19 13 15
23. IG  8 14  6 46 -  8 14  7 56
24. IG  8 21  9  5 -  8 21 11  2
25. EG 10 10 18 53 - 10 10 19 17
26. EG 10 17 21 41 - 10 17 23 42
27. EG 10 25  1 13 - 10 25  3  3
28. EG 11  1  5 40 - 11  1  5 49
29. IG 12 21 13 19 - 12 21 14 18
30. IG 12 28 16  1 - 12 28 17 26


What I think is very very cool about these events is that in some of them, one moon passes the other one while both are in transit!!!!!

In 2016, there are no triple or quadruple shadows or transits, unlike in 2015.  I looked ahead to 2017 and see pretty much the same as 2016.

Monday, December 28, 2015

Jupiter Moon Audio | 29 December 2015

Here once again are the sounds of Jupiter's moons as they revolve around the planet over the next 24 hours.

First, the sounds:

Jupiter Moon Audio | 29 December 2015

And then some plots.  Here are the orbits as seen from above.  Blue line pointing to the left is line of sight to Earth.  Red line pointing left is line of sight to the Sun:


Relative distances (in km):


Relative velocities (in km/min):


Relative accelerations (in km/min/min):


Line color code:

  • Cyan - Io / Europa
  • Pink - Io / Ganymede
  • Yellow - Io / Callisto
  • Green - Europa / Ganymede
  • Red - Europa / Callisto
  • Blue - Ganymede / Callisto

Friday, December 25, 2015

Playing IRIS Spectra Like A Player Piano

I took a sequence of calibrated IRIS spectra, identified the location of each peak, and then translated the location of the peak and the amplitide of a peak to an audio signal that we can hear.  The plots below show the peaks greater than a value of 25 (in ADU's).

Now -- how to read this plot:

Along the x-axis is the spectrum number.  In this dataset, there are 1168 spectra each taken 2 seconds apart.  So this entire dataset took 2336 seconds, or 38 minutes, 56 seconds.  Along the y-axis is the pixel location of the detected peaks.  So if you can imagine a player piano strip, the song will be played from left to right, with each dot representing a spacial location on the Sun.  In this case, the pixel range (0-548) corresponds to a nice audio frequency range, so I didn't transpose or spread out the frequency range in any way.  So a pixel location of 432 will correspond to a frequency of 432 Hz.  The amplitude of the sound corresponds to the brightness of the pixel value at that peak.

The first plot below shows the peaks above a data value of 25 ADU and as expected quite a few notes are being played at the same time.  The 2nd plot shows the peaks above a data value of 50 ADU where there are fewer notes being played.  Notice that starting at about spectrum 800 (along the x-axis) and ending about 900, the strip being played starts playing a lot more frequencies.  It also turns out that the amplitude of these tones increases by as much as a factor of 300!  What is this?  Well, it turns out to be IRIS moving through the South Atlantic Anomoly (SAA).  In the sound sample, the amplitude is obviously saturated, so I've decreased the volume of that section by 10 dB so your ears aren't blown out.

Peaks Above 25 ADU


Peaks Above 50 ADU

And here are a couple closeups.  The first is from the beginning of the dataset.  The 2nd is right before and through most of the detection of the SAA.  The closeups make it a bit easier to understand what's being played.



I should mention here that these sound samples SHOULD NOT BE PLAYED THROUGH A SPEAKER SYSTEM.  Frequencies and amplitudes might be too much for your system which could result in permanent damage.  Listen to this stuff with headphones and make sure you have control of the volume.


Here is the playlist:

IRIS Spectra Player Piano